Instagram Photos Can Predict Depression

People who are depressed had pictures that were bluer, grayer and darker.People who are depressed had pictures that were bluer, grayer and darker.

Researchers Andrew Reece of Harvard University and Chris Danforth of the University of Vermont collected survey information and 43,950 Instagram photos from 166 volunteers recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, which pays people small amounts to perform tasks.

The study is the latest in a body of research that looks at how changes in your psychology are reflected in social media, NBC News reported.

Each participant was asked to complete a standardized clinical depression survey to assess depression level, answer demographic questions and share information about their use of social media, including their Instagram usernames. They also were asked to self-report their history of depression diagnosis.

Researchers then analyzed the photos for quantitative measures of colors, brightness and faces, as well as more-subjective assessments of happiness, sadness, likability and “interestingness.”

For example, a team from Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine examined how three aspects of movement in time and space — aspects they dubbed “circadian movement,” “normalized entropy” and “location variance” — appear to correlate with symptoms of depression. Another study, out of Sweden, found that frequent cellphone use was associated with stress, sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression among both young adult men and women.

The key finding in the new study has to do with the curious relationship between mood and color. It turned out increased hue, with decreased brightness and saturation, appeared to predict depression. In other words, people who are depressed had pictures that were “bluer, grayer and darker.”

Depressed participants in the study were also more likely to post more frequently and to apply more and different types of Instagram filters.

“Healthy” participants — people the study defined as not being depressed — tended to favor the Valencia filter, which, the study said, “lightens the tint of photos.”

 Reduced Social Interactivity

One of the most fascinating findings has to do with faces. Researchers found that depressed users were more likely than others to post photos with faces. However, they had fewer faces in each photo.

“Fewer faces may be an oblique indicator that depressed users interact in smaller social settings, which would be in accordance with research linking depression to reduced social interactivity,” Reece and Danforth wrote.

The study also involved asking volunteers to rate the photos posted by other people in terms of happiness, sadness, likability and interestingness. As might be expected, the photos from depressed participants’ feeds were more likely to be sad and less happy.

One important thing to note is that researchers were able to detect these “depressive signals,” as they called them, in posts made even before the date of first diagnosis.

Researchers said the findings “suggest new avenues for early screening and detection of mental illness.”